The WADA Code 2021 outlines the following eleven Anti-Doping Rule Violations (ADRVs);
The presence of a prohibited substance or its metabolites or markers in an athlete’s sample.
2. Use or attempted Use
Use or attempted use by an athlete of a prohibited substance or a prohibited method.
3. Evading, Failing or Refusing
Evading, refusing, or failing to submit to sample collection.
4. Whereabouts Failures
Whereabouts failures are considered as any combination of three missed tests and/or filing failures within a 12-month period by an athlete in a registered testing pool.
5. Tampering or attempted Tampering
Tampering or attempted tampering with any part of doping control.
Possession of a prohibited substance or prohibited method.
7. Trafficking or attempted Trafficking
Trafficking or attempted trafficking in any prohibited substance or prohibited method.
8. Administration, Aiding and Abetting
Administration or attempted administration to any athlete of any prohibited substance or prohibited method.
9. Complicity or attempted Complicity
Assisting, encouraging, aiding, abetting, conspiring, covering up or any other type of intentional complicity or attempted complicity involving an ADRV or any attempted ADRV.
10. Prohibited Association
Associating in a professional or sport-related capacity with a person such as a coach, doctor, physio or trainer who is serving a ban or who has been found guilty of a criminal or disciplinary offence equivalent to a doping violation.
11. Acts to Discourage or Retaliate against reporting to the Authorities
Acts that threaten or seek to intimidate another to discourage them from sharing information about doping (also referred to as whistleblowing), or retaliating against another for doing so.